We generally discuss 2021 and 2020 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2021 and 2020 in the section that follows. Discussions of 2019 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2020 and 2019 that are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may be found in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended
December 31, 2020, filed with the SECon March 5, 2021.
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes that appear elsewhere in this document.
We design, develop, manufacture, ship and support control and sensor technology solutions and a broad line of universal control systems, audio-video ("AV") accessories, and intelligent wireless security and smart home products that are used by the world's leading brands in the video services, consumer electronics, security, home automation, climate control, and home appliance markets. Our product and technology offerings include: •easy-to-use, voice-enabled, automatically-programmed universal remote controls with two-way radio frequency ("RF") as well as infrared ("IR") remote controls, sold primarily to video service providers (cable, satellite, Internet Protocol television ("IPTV") and Over the Top ("OTT") services), original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs"), retailers, and private label customers; •integrated circuits ("ICs"), on which our software and universal device control database is embedded, sold primarily to OEMs, video service providers, and private label customers; •software, firmware and technology solutions that can enable devices such as TVs, set-top boxes, audio systems, smart speakers, game consoles and other consumer electronic and smart home devices to wirelessly connect and interact with home networks and interactive services to control and deliver home entertainment, smart home services and device or system information; •cloud-services that support our embedded software and hardware solutions (directly or indirectly) enabling real-time device identification and system control with billions of transactions per year in device and data management; •intellectual property that we license primarily to OEMs and video service providers; •proprietary and standards-based RF sensors designed for residential security, safety and home automation applications; •wall-mount and handheld thermostat controllers and connected accessories for intelligent energy management systems, primarily to OEM customers, as well as hotels and hospitality system integrators; and •AV accessories sold, directly and indirectly, to consumers including universal remote controls, television wall mounts and stands and digital television antennas. A key factor in creating products and software for control of entertainment devices is our proprietary device knowledge graph. Since our beginning in 1986, we have compiled an extensive device control knowledge library that includes nearly 13,000 brands comprising over 989,000 device models across AV and smart home platforms, supported by many common smart home protocols, including IR, HDMI-CEC, Zigbee (Rf4CE), Z-Wave, IP, as well as Home Network and Cloud Control.
This Device Awareness Graph is powered by our unique Device Fingerprint technology which includes over 24.4 million unique device fingerprints across AV and Smart Home devices.
Our technology also includes other remote controlled home entertainment devices and home automation control modules, as well as wired Consumer Electronics Control ("CEC") and wireless IP control protocols commonly found on many of the latest HDMI and internet connected devices. Our proprietary software automatically detects, identifies and enables the appropriate control commands for many home entertainment and automation devices in the home. Our libraries are continuously updated with device control codes used in newly introduced AV and IoT devices. These control codes are captured directly from original control devices or from the manufacturer's written specifications to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the library. Our proprietary software and know-how permit us to offer a device control code database that is more robust and efficient than similarly priced products of our competitors. We operate as one business segment. We have two domestic subsidiaries and 25 international subsidiaries located in
Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, France, Germany, Hong Kong(3), India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico(2), the Netherlands, the People's Republic of China(7), Singapore, Spainand the United Kingdom. 30
To recap our results for 2021:
•Net sales decreased 2.1% to
$601.6 millionin 2021 from $614.7 millionin 2020. •Our gross profit percentage increased to 28.8% in 2021 from 28.7% in 2020. •Operating expenses, as a percent of sales, increased to 24.9% in 2021 from 22.6% in 2020. •Operating income decreased to $23.3 millionin 2021 from $37.3 millionin 2020, and our operating margin percentage decreased to 3.9% in 2021, compared to 6.1% in 2020. •Our effective tax rate increased to 67.0% in 2021 from 12.1% in 2020.
Our strategic business objectives for 2022 include the following:
•continue to develop and market advanced remote control products and technologies our customer base is adopting; •continue to broaden our home control and home automation product offerings; •continue to expand our software and service offerings to deliver a complete managed service platform; •continue to invest in creating technology differentiation across our global product portfolio; •further penetration of international subscription broadcasting markets; •acquire new customers in historically strong regions; •increase our share with existing customers; •continue to seek acquisitions or strategic partners that complement and strengthen our existing business; and •continue our long-term factory planning strategy of reducing our concentration risk in
the People's Republic of China. We intend for the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations to provide information that will assist in understanding our consolidated financial statements, the changes in certain key items in those financial statements from period to period, and the primary factors that accounted for those changes, as well as how certain accounting principles, policies and estimates affect our consolidated financial statements.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic
The global spread of COVID-19 has been and continues to be a complex and rapidly-evolving situation, with governments, public institutions and other organizations imposing or recommending, and businesses and individuals implementing, at various times and to varying degrees, restrictions on various activities or other actions to combat its spread, such as restrictions and bans on travel or transportation, limitations on the size of gatherings, closures of or occupancy or other operating limitations on ports, work facilities, schools, public buildings and businesses, cancellation of events, including sporting events, conferences and meetings, and quarantines and lock-downs. The COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences have and will continue to impact our business, operations, and financial results. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business, operations, and financial results, including the duration and magnitude of such effects, will depend on numerous evolving factors that we may not be able to accurately predict or assess, including the duration and scope of the COVID-19 pandemic (including the location and extent of resurgences of the virus, particularly in light of new variants, and the availability of effective treatments or vaccines); and the negative impact the COVID-19 pandemic has on global and regional economies and economic activity, including the duration and magnitude of its impact on unemployment rates and consumer discretionary spending. Because the severity, magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic are uncertain, rapidly changing, and difficult to predict, the pandemic's impact on our operations and financial performance, as well as its impact on our ability to successfully execute our business strategy and initiatives, remains uncertain. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, the full extent of this outbreak and the related governmental, business and travel restrictions in order to contain the COVID-19 pandemic are continuing to evolve globally. Our COVID-19 task force, which includes a cross-functional group of senior-level executives, continues to manage and respond to the ever-changing health and safety requirements across the globe and communicate our responses and recommended course of action to our global factory and office leaders. In addition, we continue to maintain safety measures for all our employees across the globe as pandemic conditions require, including implementing work-from-home arrangements, restricting travel except where essential and approved in advance, frequent office and factory sanitation, temperature scans upon entry, hand sanitizer stations located throughout our facilities and offices, mask wearing, social distancing measures in gathering places and restricting visitor access. All factories are up to or near labor capacity as of the issuance of this report. Further, we continue to monitor and follow suggested guidelines by the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, and local governmental orders and recommendations. The continued safety and welfare of our employees will remain at the forefront of all decision-making. 31
We anticipate that these actions and the global health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to negatively impact business activity across the globe, including our business. We expect our sales demand to be negatively impacted into, at least, the first half of 2022 given the global reach and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the various quarantine and social distancing measures put in place to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. A closure of one of our factories for a sustained period of time would, in the short run, impact our ability to meet customer demand and would negatively impact our results. We have also seen disruptions in our supply chain, due to difficulty in obtaining ICs and substantial delays in the transportation and the onloading and offloading of our product due to significant congestion at ports throughout the world. This, in turn, causes significant congestion in other downstream transportation, such as via trucks and rail. As such, these congestions have caused and continue to cause difficulty and delays in our ability to fulfill customer orders and have resulted in increased logistics costs. We will continue to actively monitor these situations and may take further actions altering our business operations as necessary or as required by federal, state, or local authorities. The potential effects of any such alterations or modifications may have a material adverse impact on our business during 2022. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic subsides or effective treatments or vaccines become available, our business, markets, growth prospects and business model could be materially impacted or altered.
Impact of the global shortage of integrated circuits
We continue experiencing difficulty in ordering ICs for future use and that difficulty is expected to continue through at least mid to late 2022. The global shortage of ICs is affecting a multitude of industries and we expect it to continue to affect our business. While we are identifying other sources of ICs and taking other production and inventory control steps in order to mitigate the effects caused by this shortage, we cannot guarantee that we will find alternative sources to meet our short- and longer-term IC needs and/or without experiencing increases in the prices we pay for these components. If we are not able to find alternative sources of ICs or are not able to purchase sufficient quantities of ICs from our current and alternative suppliers, we may not be able to produce sufficient quantities of products to meet our customers' demands. This, in turn, may affect our ability to meet our quarterly revenue targets. Further, we may incur additional freight costs to meet the delivery demands of our customers. In addition, many of our products are paired with certain of our customers' products, like set-top boxes or televisions. If those customers are not able to obtain sufficient quantities of ICs for their products, their demand for our products may decrease.
Factory in Qinzhou, China
October 2021, Reuters published an article indicating that individuals from China'sUyghur minority, originally resident in the PRC region of Xinjiang, were working in a facility in Qinzhou, Guangxioperated by our Chinese subsidiary, Gemstar Technology (Qinzhou) Co. Ltd.("Gemstar"). The article alleged that the presence of these workers in Guangxiwas indicative of "a transfer program described by some rights groups as forced labor." We have reviewed and confirmed that Gemstar compensated these individuals for their work at the same rates as workers of other ethnicities whohad comparable skills and roles, and at a level that was above the local minimum wage. Although our review did not identify any instances in which individuals were obliged or in any other way forced to work at the Qinzhou facility or were paid less than their promised wage, Gemstar, which engaged these workers through a third-party labor agency, terminated its relationship with that agency, ended its arrangement with these workers, and paid all outstanding wages and severance directly and individually to each of the workers in question. Nonetheless, the perception that we or an entity affiliated with us might have had associations with a program described by some as involving forced labor could result in reputational damage as well as lost revenue. To date, as a result of this perception, one customer has put further business with us on hold. Should additional customers cease doing business with us, the loss of revenue could become material, which would have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. We take all allegations regarding working conditions seriously, and took a cooperative approach to responding to the Committee's letter, cooperated fully with the Committee's inquiry and provided the Committee with timely and complete responses to all of its questions.
Critical accounting estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in
the United States(" U.S.GAAP") requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those related to revenue recognition, inventory valuation, impairment of long-lived assets, intangible assets and goodwill and income taxes. Actual 32
results may differ from these judgments and estimates, and they may be adjusted as more information becomes available. Any adjustment may be significant and may have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. An accounting estimate is deemed to be critical if it requires an accounting estimate to be made based on assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time the estimate is made, if different estimates reasonably may have been used, or if changes in the estimate that are reasonably likely to occur may materially impact the financial statements. Management believes the following critical accounting estimates affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. In addition to the accounting policies mentioned below, see "ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements - Note 2" for other significant accounting policies.
Revenue is recognized when control of a good or service is transferred to a customer. Control is considered to be transferred when the customer has the ability to direct the use of and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits of that good or service. Revenues are generated from manufacturing and delivering universal control, sensing and automation products and AV accessories, which are sold through multiple channels, and licensing intellectual property that is embedded in these products or licensed to others for use in their products. Timing of Revenue Recognition - When determining the classification of over time verses point in time revenue recognition, there is significant judgment exercised by management in identifying and evaluating whether new contracts and/or products meet the criteria for over time or point in time revenue recognition. Significant judgments include the evaluation of legal terms and rights within each jurisdiction that we operate, specifically as it relates to our entitlement to gross margin at termination, and the evaluation of whether it is possible, contractually or economically, to repurpose or redirect products. Royalty Revenue - We license our symbolic intellectual property which includes our patented technologies and database of control codes. Royalty revenue is recognized for these licensing arrangements on an over time basis. We record license revenue for per-unit based licenses when our customers manufacture or ship a product incorporating our intellectual property and we have a present right to payment. The number of shipped units is estimated based on historical royalty revenue and other known factors. If actual shipped units differ from our estimates we will record a reduction or increase to net sales in the period the actuals are reported by the licensee, typically in the following quarter. Sales Returns and Allowances - A provision is recorded for estimated sales returns and allowances and is deducted from gross sales to arrive at net sales in the period the related revenue is recorded. These estimates are based on historical sales returns and allowances, analysis of credit memo data and other known factors. Actual returns and claims in any future period are inherently uncertain and thus may differ from our estimates. If actual or expected future returns and claims are significantly greater or lower than the reserves that we have established, we will record a reduction or increase to net sales in the period in which we make such a determination. Sales Discounts and Rebates - A provision is recorded for estimated sales discounts and rebates and is deducted from gross sales to arrive at net sales in the period the related revenue is recorded. We accrue for discounts and rebates based on historical experience and our expectations regarding future sales to our customers. Changes in such accruals may be required if actual discounts and rebates differ from our estimates.
Our finished good, component part, and raw material inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out method. We write down our inventory for the estimated difference between cost and estimated net realizable value based upon our best estimates of future demand and market conditions. We carry inventory in amounts necessary to satisfy our customers' inventory requirements on a timely basis. We continually monitor our inventory status to control inventory levels and write down any excess or obsolete inventories on hand. If actual market conditions become less favorable than those projected by management, additional inventory write-downs may be required, which may have a material impact on our financial statements. Such circumstances may include, but are not limited to, the development of new competing technology that impedes the marketability of our products or the occurrence of significant price decreases in our raw material or component parts, such as integrated circuits. Each percentage point change in the ratio of excess and obsolete inventory reserve to inventory would impact cost of sales by approximately
$1.5 million. 33
Valuation of long-lived assets and intangible assets
We test intangible assets and intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors considered material and likely to trigger an impairment review, if material, include the following:
•underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results; •changes in the manner of use of the assets; •changes in the strategy of our overall business; •negative industry or economic trends; •a decline in our stock price for a sustained period; and •a variance between our market capitalization relative to net book value. If the carrying value of the asset is larger than its projected undiscounted future cash flows, the asset is impaired. The impairment is measured as the difference between the net book value of the asset and the asset's estimated fair value. Fair value is estimated utilizing the asset's projected discounted future cash flows. In assessing fair value, we must make assumptions regarding estimated future cash flows, the discount rate and other factors. If the actual performance of the assets becomes less favorable than those projected by management, adjustments to the carrying values of the these assets may have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.
We evaluate the carrying value of goodwill on
December 31of each year and between annual evaluations if events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying amount. Such circumstances may include, but are not limited to: (1) a significant adverse change in legal factors or in business climate, (2) unanticipated competition or (3) an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. We perform our annual impairment test using a qualitative assessment weighing the relative impact of factors that are specific to our single reporting unit as well as industry and macroeconomic factors. Based on the qualitative assessment performed, considering the aggregation of the relevant factors, we concluded that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of our single reporting unit is less than the carrying value. Therefore, performing a quantitative impairment test was unnecessary. Certain future events and circumstances, including adverse changes in general business and economic conditions in the United Statesand worldwide and changes in consumer behavior could result in changes to our assumptions and judgments used in the goodwill impairment tests. A downward revision of these assumptions could cause the fair value of the reporting unit to fall below its respective carrying values and a noncash impairment charge would be required. Such a charge may have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.
We calculate our current and deferred tax provisions based on estimates and assumptions that may differ from the actual results reflected in our income tax returns filed during the subsequent year. We record adjustments based on filed returns when we have identified and finalized them, which is generally in the third and fourth quarters of the subsequent year. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which we expect the differences to reverse. We record a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax assets to the amount that we are more likely than not to realize. We have considered future market growth, forecasted earnings and tax rates, future taxable income, the mix of earnings in the jurisdictions in which we operate and prudent tax planning strategies in determining the need for a valuation allowance. In the event we were to determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax assets in the future, we would increase the valuation allowance and make a corresponding charge to earnings in the period in which we make such determination. Likewise, if we later determine that we are more likely than not to realize the net deferred tax assets, we would reverse the applicable portion of the previously provided valuation allowance. In order for us to realize our deferred tax assets we must be able to generate sufficient taxable income in the tax jurisdictions in which the deferred tax assets are located. Any changes to the realizability of our deferred tax assets or liabilities may have a material impact on our financial statements. We are subject to income taxes in
the United Statesand foreign countries, and we are subject to routine corporate income tax audits in many of these jurisdictions. We believe that our tax return positions are fully supported, but tax authorities are likely to challenge certain positions, which may not be fully sustained. Our income tax expense includes amounts intended to satisfy 34
income tax assessments that result from these challenges in accordance with the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes prescribed by
U.S.GAAP. Determining the income tax expense for these potential assessments and recording the related assets and liabilities requires management judgments and estimates. We maintain reserves for uncertain tax positions, including related interest and penalties. We review our reserves quarterly, and we may adjust such reserves due to proposed assessments by tax authorities, changes in facts and circumstances, issuance of new regulations or new case law, previously unavailable information obtained during the course of an examination, negotiations between tax authorities of different countries concerning our transfer prices, execution of advanced pricing agreements, resolution with respect to individual audit issues, the resolution of entire audits, or the expiration of statutes of limitations. The amounts ultimately paid upon resolution of audits may be materially different from the amounts previously included in our income tax expense and, therefore, may have a material impact on our financial statements.
The following table sets forth our results of operations expressed as a percentage of net sales for the periods indicated.
Year Ended December 31, 2021 2020 Net sales 100.0 % 100.0 % Cost of sales 71.2 71.3 Gross profit 28.8 28.7 Research and development expenses 5.1
Selling, general and administrative expenses 19.8
Operating income 3.9
Interest income (expense), net (0.1)
Loss on sale of
Accrued social insurance adjustment -
Other income (expense), net (0.1)
Income before provision for income taxes 2.7 7.2 Provision for income taxes 1.8 0.9 Net income 0.9 % 6.3 %
Net sales. Net sales for 2021 were
$601.6 million, a decrease of 2.1% compared to $614.7 millionin 2020. Sales in our subscription broadcast channel, primarily in North America, were lower than in the prior year. Partially offsetting this decrease is growth in our HVAC channel, particularly in the APAC region, as consumers are demanding higher-end solutions. Our customers in the HVAC channel began incorporating our technology in their high-end products and are now including these advanced solutions in a variety of models. In addition, royalty revenue has increased as a few of the largest TV OEMs in the world are embedding our technology in their devices. Gross profit. Gross profit in 2021 was $173.0 millioncompared to $176.3 millionin 2020. Gross profit as a percent of sales remained relatively consistent at 28.8% in 2021 compared to 28.7% in 2020. Gross profit as a percent of sales was favorably impacted by a mix shift towards higher margin revenue streams such as royalties, as a few of the largest consumer electronic companies in the world are embedding our technology in their devices. The gross margin increase due to mix shift was partially offset by the weakening of the U.S.Dollar versus the Chinese Yuan Renminbi and Mexican Peso and by higher material and freight costs. In addition, impairment expenses relating to the underutilization of property, plant and equipment in our PRC-based factories were incurred in 2021 as a result of our long-term factory planning strategy to reduce our concentration risk in that region.
Research and development (“R&D”) expenditures. R&D expenditure decreased by 1.7% to
Selling, general and administrative ("SG&A") expenses. SG&A expenses increased 10.5% to
$118.8 millionin 2021 from $107.5 millionin 2020, primarily due to an increase in outside legal expenses related to specific legal matters. 35
Interest income (expense), net. Net interest expense decreased to
$0.6 millionin 2021 from $1.4 millionin 2020 as a result of a lower average loan balance and a lower average interest rate. Loss on sale of Argentinasubsidiary. During 2021, we completed the sale of our subsidiary, One For All Argentina S.R.L, recording a loss on sale of $6.1 million. The loss was primarily attributable to the weakening of the Argentinian Peso versus the U.S.Dollar resulting in a loss in equity value in our Argentinasubsidiary and ultimately sales proceeds that were significantly less than the invested capital. Accrued social insurance adjustment. In 2020, we reversed approximately $9.5 millionof accrued social insurance. In June 2018, we sold our Guangzhouentity via a stock deal and the terms of the agreement included a two-year indemnification period. In June 2020, the indemnification period expired and we determined we were no longer legally liable for any liabilities associated with our Guangzhouentity. Accordingly, we reversed the accrued social insurance amount associated with the Guangzhouentity which was approximately $9.5 million. Other income (expense), net. Other expense, net was $0.6 millionin 2021, as a result of net foreign currency losses offset partially by miscellaneous non-operating gains, compared to other expense, net of $1.4 millionin 2020, as a result of net foreign currency losses offset partially by miscellaneous non-operating gains. Income tax expense. Income tax expense was $10.8 millionin 2021 compared to $5.3 millionin 2020. Our effective tax rate was 67.0% in 2021 compared to 12.1% in 2020. Our effective tax rate was higher than normal in 2021 as a result of the mix of pre-tax income among jurisdictions, including losses not benefited as a result of a valuation allowance and the nondeductible losses on the sale and liquidation of our Argentinaand Cayman subsidiaries, respectively. Our effective tax rate was lower than normal in 2020 as a result of the application of preferential foreign tax rates as well as foreign income not subject to tax in its respective local jurisdictions, partially offset by the U.S.tax loss not being benefited due to the valuation allowance.
Cash and capital resources
Sources of cash
Historically, we have utilized cash provided from operations as our primary source of liquidity, as internally generated cash flows have been sufficient to support our business operations, capital expenditures and discretionary share repurchases. In addition, we have utilized our revolving line of credit to fund an increased level of share repurchases and past acquisitions. We anticipate that we will continue to utilize both cash flows from operations and our revolving line of credit to support ongoing business operations, capital expenditures, expenses associated with our long-term factory planning strategy, future discretionary share repurchases and potential future acquisitions. We believe our current cash balances, anticipated cash flow to be generated from operations and available borrowing resources will be sufficient to cover expected cash outlays for at least the next twelve months and for the foreseeable future thereafter; however, because our cash is located in various jurisdictions throughout the world, we may at times need to increase borrowing from our revolving line of credit or take on additional debt until we are able to transfer cash among our various entities.
Our liquidity is subject to various risks, including the market risks identified in “ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE INFORMATION ON MARKET RISKS”.
December 31, 20212020
Cash and cash equivalents
Loan resources available 66,300 102,300
Cash and cash equivalents - On
December 31, 2021, we had $6.4 million, $16.0 million, $11.8 million, $17.6 millionand $9.0 millionof cash and cash equivalents in North America, the PRC, Asia(excluding the PRC), Europe, and South America, respectively. We attempt to mitigate our exposure to liquidity, credit and other relevant risks by placing our cash and cash equivalents with financial institutions we believe are high quality. Our cash balances are held in numerous locations throughout the world. The majority of our cash is held outside of the United Statesand may be repatriated to the United Statesbut, under current law, may be subject to state income taxes and foreign withholding taxes. Additionally, repatriation of some foreign balances is restricted by local laws. We have provided for the state income tax and the foreign withholding tax liabilities on these amounts for financial statement purposes. 36
Available Borrowing Resources - Our Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement ("Second Amended Credit Agreement") with
U.S. Bank National Associationprovides for a $125.0 millionrevolving line of credit ("Credit Line") that expires on November 1, 2023. The Credit Line may be used for working capital and other general corporate purposes including acquisitions, share repurchases and capital expenditures. Amounts available for borrowing under the Credit Line are reduced by the balance of any outstanding letters of credit, of which there were $2.7 millionat December 31, 2021. At December 31, 2021, we had an outstanding balance of $56.0 millionon our Credit Line and $66.3 millionof availability.
See “ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND ADDITIONAL DATA – Notes to the consolidated financial statements – Note 9” for more information regarding our line of credit.
Uses of silver
Our cash flows were as follows:
Year Ended Year Ended December 31, Increase December 31, (In thousands) 2021 (Decrease) 2020 Cash provided by operating activities
$ 40,283 $ (33,109) $ 73,392Cash provided by (used for) investing activities (17,041) 6,693 (23,734) Cash provided by (used for) financing activities (22,026) 43,938 (65,964)
Effect of changes in exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents
2,444 3,287 (843) Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
$ 3,660 $ 20,809 $ (17,149)Increase December 31, 2021 (Decrease) December 31, 2020 Cash and cash equivalents $ 60,813 $ 3,660$ 57,153 Working capital 120,359 (26,974) 147,333 Net cash provided by operating activities was $40.3 millionduring 2021 compared to $73.4 millionduring 2020. Net income was $5.3 millionin 2021 compared to $38.6 millionin 2020. Accounts payable and accrued liabilities resulted in net cash inflows of $0.9 millionin 2021 compared to net cash outflows of $33.5 millionin 2020, largely as a result of a significant increase in inventories and a decrease in payments related to accrued compensation in 2021. Inventories increased by $15.0 millionduring the year ended December 31, 2021due to efforts to mitigate supply chain issues relating to component shortages and logistics delays compared to a decrease of $28.3 millionduring the year ended December 31, 2020resulting from lower sales volume in 2020 compared to 2019. Our inventory turns decreased to 2.9 turns at December 31, 2021compared to 3.4 turns at December 31, 2020. Accrued income taxes increased by $2.9 millionduring the year ended December 31, 2021compared to a decrease of $6.5 millionduring the year ended December 31, 2020, largely as a result of decreased tax payments and increases in tax expenses during 2021. Future cash flows from operations are expected to be affected by the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically relating to logistical issues. For the first half of 2022, we expect component shortages will continue to have an adverse effect on cash flows with some relief beginning to occur in the second half of the year. In addition, we expect to commence manufacturing operations in a new factory in Vietnamin the third quarter of 2022 which, in the short run, may result in manufacturing inefficiencies. Net cash used for investing activities during 2021 was $17.0 million, of which $12.6 millionand $4.4 millionwas used for capital expenditures and development of patents, respectively. Net cash used for investing activities during 2020 was $23.7 million, of which $16.9 millionand $6.4 millionwas used for capital expenditures and development of patents, respectively.
Future cash flows used for investing activities largely depend on the timing and amount of capital expenditures. We estimate that we will incur between
Net cash used for financing activities was
$22.0 millionduring 2021 compared to $66.0 millionduring 2020. The primary financing activities in 2021 and 2020 were borrowings and repayments on our line of credit and repurchases of shares of our common stock. Net borrowings on our line of credit were $36.0 millionin 2021 and net repayments were $48.0 millionin 2020. 37
In 2021, we purchased 1,243,196 common shares at a price of
Future cash flows used for financing activities are affected by our financing needs which are largely dependent on the level of cash provided by or used in operations and the level of cash used in investing activities. Additionally, potential future repurchases of shares of our common stock will impact our cash flows used for financing activities. See "ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements - Note 14" for further information regarding our share repurchase programs. Material Cash Commitments - The following table summarizes our material cash commitments and the effect these commitments are expected to have on our cash flows in future periods: Payments Due by Period Less than 1 - 3 4 - 5 After (In thousands) Total 1 year years years 5 years Operating lease obligations
$ 27,217 $ 6,826 $ 9,701 $ 5,968 $ 4,722Property, plant, and equipment purchases 2,638 2,638 - - - Inventory purchases 18,530 18,530 - - - Software license 3,519 53 315 735 2,416 Total material cash commitments $ 51,904 $ 28,047$
We expect to meet our significant cash commitments with our cash generated from operations and available borrowing resources, including our line of credit.
Recent accounting pronouncements
See “ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 2” for a discussion of recent accounting pronouncements.
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